A piston pump is a type of positive displacement pump where the high-pressure seal reciprocates with the piston. Piston pumps can be used to move liquids or compress gases. They can operate over a wide range of pressures. High pressure operation can be achieved without a strong effect on flow rate. Piston pumps can also deal with viscous media and media containing solid particles. This pump type functions through a piston cup, oscillation mechanism where down-strokes cause pressure differentials, filling of pump chambers, where up-stroke forces the pump fluid out for use. Piston pumps are often used in scenarios requiring high, consistent pressure and in water irrigation or delivery systems. A vane pump is a self-priming positive displacement pump providing constant flow at varying pressures. Operation is via a motor connected to a gearbox as typically the maximum rpm is 900. The pump is fitted with a relief valve to prevent the pump from building to a pressure which may damage the pump. A gear pump is a type of positive displacement (PD) pump. It moves a fluid by repeatedly enclosing a fixed volume using interlocking cogs or gears, transferring it mechanically using a cyclic pumping action. It delivers a smooth pulse-free flow proportional to the rotational speed of its gears. An external gear pump utilizes two identical gears meshed side by side, where one gear (driving) is driven by a motor, and it – in turn – drives the other gear (driven) driving gear driving the idle (driven) gear. Each gear is supported by a shaft with bearings on both sides of the gear. An internal gear pump moves a fluid by repeatedly enclosing a fixed volume within interlocking gears, transferring it mechanically to deliver a smooth pulse-free flow proportional to the rotational speed of its gears. Directional control valves (DCVs) are one of the most fundamental parts of hydraulic and pneumatic systems. DCVs allow fluid flow (hydraulic oil, water or air) into different paths from one or more sources. DCVs will usually consist of a spool inside a cylinder which is mechanically or electrically actuated. The position of the spool restricts or permits flow, thus it controls the fluid flow. A solenoid valve is an electrically controlled valve. The valve features a solenoid, which is an electric coil with a movable ferromagnetic core (plunger) in its center. In the rest position, the plunger closes off a small orifice. An electric current through the coil creates a magnetic field. The magnetic field exerts an upwards force on the plunger opening the orifice. This is the basic principle that is used to open and close solenoid valves. Manually Actuated employs levers, gears, or wheels to facilitate movement while an automatic actuator has an external power source to provide the force and motion to operate a valve remotely or automatically. A check valve, non-return valve, reflux valve, retention valve, foot valve, or one-way valve is a valve that normally allows fluid (liquid or gas) to flow through it in only one direction. Pressure control (PC) is a mode of mechanical ventilation alone and a variable within other modes of mechanical ventilation. Pressure control is used to regulate pressures applied during mechanical ventilation. Air delivered into the patients lungs (breaths) are currently regulated by Volume Control or Pressure Control. In pressure controlled breaths a tidal volume achieved is based on how much volume can be delivered before the pressure control limit is reached.